Nmap is a network mapper that has emerged as one of the most popular, free network discovery tools on the market. Nmap is now one of the core tools used by network administrators to map their networks. The program can be used to find live hosts on a network, perform port scanning, ping sweeps, OS detection, and version detection. Basic Scanning Techniques
A use case helps professionals identify and clarify requirements to achieve a goal. Confidentiality ensures that data is only viewable by authorized users. Encryption is the best choice to provide confidentiality. Access controls also protect the confidentiality of data. Steganography (hiding data inside other data) is one method of supporting obfuscation by making the hidden data harder to see. Integrity provides assurances that data has not been modified, tampered with, or corrupted through unauthorized or unintended changes. Data can be a message, a file, or data within a database. Hashing is a common method of ensuring integrity. Non-repudiation prevents entities from denying they took an action.